Over the years, the A level syllabi have covered various topics in epistemology. The  current (2017) syllabus includes many issues concerning the nature of knowledge, scepticism, perception, and what knowledge can be gained by reason alone. These topics are all discussed in handouts available from the Routledge companion website for A level philosophy. My writings on topics in epistemology collected here are supplementary to that collection.

Rationalism and empiricism
Scepticism and relativism


Justification: Foundationalism and coherentism
Justification: Internalism and externalism

Rationalism and empiricism

Plato and Hume on the nature and scope of human knowledge
Descartes and Hume on knowledge of the external world
Hume on the foundations of science
Empiricism on moral and religious knowledge
Kant on conceptual schemes

Scepticism and relativism

The following essays are in logical order – later ones may presuppose earlier ones.

  1. Wittgenstein on doubt
  2. Three responses to scepticism
  3. Conceptual schemes
  4. Can there be objective knowledge?
  5. Relativism about knowledge
  6. The implications of relativism about knowledge
  7. ‘That’s just your opinion’